REST Misconceptions Part 2 - (Not) Linking Data (Enough)
In the third installment of my REST misconceptions series in which I explore hyperlinks. Links are an essential part of a REST API as has been written down by Richard Fowler in his article about the Richardson Maturity Model. Wonder why links are important? Please, do read on.
In this series:
- Misuse of URIs
- Not linked enough
- More than links
- Resources are application state
- REST “documentation”
REST is about links
REST is defined by Roy Fielding as an
architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems
The word distributed is important, because it means that resources are spread across the web, possibly even multiple servers or systems. In a REST API these resources are connected by links or hyperlinks, hence the term hypermedia. In practice links must be included in the resource representations, so that clients can follow them to transfer to the next application state.
Unfortunately many so-called REST APIs don’t follow this simple rule.
Real life links
A good analogy for URI is an address. A physical location of a person’s home, work or a doctor’s office. Addresses can be quite complicated and contain many part like street and flat number, floor number, postal code, building name, etc. Addresses also vary by country. Try deciphering this address in Tokyo:
But why would you? This is why online store can work on an international scale: you can just print this on an envelope
and off the letter goes. All you need to know is that the text above is an address, which
links the seller to the
So which is more important, the details of the address or where it actually points?
A World Wide Web analogy
Another common example is the WWW and how HTML documents are linked. All the browser (and the user by extension) cares about is the link type, which humans derive from the web page’s context. When you see a link to a wikipedia page, you can simply click it and the browser takes you there. Neither you nor the browser is too interested about the address itself. It simply uses the HTTP protocol to retrieve and display the data.
REST without links is not REST
A common, infamous example, which calls itself RESTful is Twitter API. It breaks most of the REST constraints,
one of them being lack of links to other resources. To retrieve a user’s tweets for instance Twitter exposes the
statuses/user_timeline resource. A complete URI used to retrieve two latest posts of user tpluscode is
https://api.twitter.com/1.1/statuses/user_timeline.json?screen_name=tpluscode&count=2. I’m leaving aside the fact that
including version number and json format is a dubious practice. Here’s an excerpt from the JSON response returned from
user_timeline resource as shown in the documentation:
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I’ve removed some of the nested objects for brevity. Do notice the
properties in the two tweets. The latter two are null in the sample representation but both would be simple numeric values.
Having retrieved such response for a GET, the client has no way to proceed to the next state!
The problem: Out-of-band information
Well, you could say that the last sentence isn’t true. After all there is the documentation, which describes how to retrieve
a single status. It’s as simple as using the
id as parameter for the
That’s great, but it requires the client implementation to be hardcoded against a specific URI pattern. Relying on URI structure like this is risky business, which I mentioned in part one of this series.
REST APIs must be hypertext driven
A REST API must not define fixed resource names or hierarchies (an obvious coupling of client and server). Servers must have the freedom to control their own namespace. Instead, allow servers to instruct clients on how to construct appropriate URIs, such as is done in HTML forms and URI templates, by defining those instructions within media types and link relations. [Failure here implies that clients are assuming a resource structure due to out-of band information, such as a domain-specific standard, which is the data-oriented equivalent to RPC’s functional coupling].
This passage reveals flaws in the example above. A client of Twitter’s API relies on specific URI structure, which will
break shall the server change how it assigns identifiers. Instead of that the client should be coded against a documented
set of relations or links between resources. The most obvious relation is often called the self relation. It tells
the client the identifier of any given resource. In the above representations, the values the
id property could be
changed to contain actual URIs so that the client can simply
GET it. The
properties could become
in_reply_to_status and similarly hold URIs.
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Filling in the blanks
It may not always be possible to give the client complete links. The web already has a standard solution for such
circumstances called URI templates, which have been standardized in RFC 6570. There a readily available
implementations for many languages. If there is a need to let the client supply a parameter value within a URI, it can be
served an incomplete URI. For example Twitter could define a
user_search relation, which allows the client to find users
screen_name as it currently does:
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How the client knows what are the possible values for the parameters or whether they are required is a different matter entirely and extends beyond links.
Not only inline links
Most examples around the web show links, which are included within the response body itself. However with the HTTP in particular it’s not the only option. The protocol defines the Link header, which can be used to connect resources on the web. It is especially important for media types, which don’t define a clear link semantics or even any means of including links to other resources. The list includes images, video and to some extent vanilla JSON, where links are actually indistinguishable from simple text. Link header is also useful in media types which do allow linking, but the link doesn’t have domain-specific meaning for a resource, etc. Common example is collection paging, where links are included to other pages within a larger set.
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Notice the use of predefined link relations. It is also possible to use custom relations, by referring to them with their URIs. This allows link relations to become resources in their own rights, with human- and machine-readable representations available. How cool is that for meta-REST programming? A common example I give is links to weakly related resources, which can help the client build a complete user interface. These can include a representation of common element such as breadcrumbs, navigation menu or user’s authentication status.
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Is that it?
As far as linking is concerned it actually is. Bottom line is that clients are interested in specific kind of data and not details about how to get it (pun intended).
Of course links are not enough for a complete description of possible client-server interaction. I will expand upon this subject in the next post.